SID Sensory Integration Disorder
Sensory Integration Disorder or Sensory Integration Dysfunction (SID) is a disorder of the neurological system in which the senses are not fully brought together and recognized as a sum total by the brain.In a healthy brain the five senses, awareness of the body and it's relation to the environment, balance and motion are recognized together as a whole and each is also distinguishable from the others. However with SID the patient has some degree lack of recognition of each of these and some degree of failure to integrate these. The subject may also have difficulty processing the sensation of pain and the connection between the pain and the cause of the pain and the ability to react accordingly.
For example, a subject may have a body part too close to a flame, fail to recognize the pain as pain, a failure to realize that the pain is caused by the flame and possibly an inability to reposition the body away from the flame. A person with SID may need to concentrate on sensations in order to be able to process them whereas without SID the person integrates the senses more or less automatically. Great effort may also be needed for a person with SID to process the input of the senses. Emotional behavior, motor skills and language skills may also be effected by SID.
Often the failure to automatically process the senses results in a more pr less involuntary reaction from the primitive part of the brain. This can result in extremes of emotion and reaction. The "fight or flight" instinct may be triggered where it is inappropriate.
SID may be caused by premature birth, an other neurological disorder, or a brain injury, however autism and ADHD are the two leading causes of SID.
SID is treated by occupational and physical therapists using what is called a "sensory diet" which is basically a training routine for the brain. The earlier recognition and treatment of SID give the best prognosis for patients with SID.